Difference between revisions of "Landslides and Debris Flows in the California Central Coast Region"

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Landslides are a characterized as the falling or movement of soil or rock down a slope and can manifest through  mudflows, mudslides, debris flows, rock falls, rockslides, debris avalanches, debris slides, and slump-earth flows.<ref>[https://www.co.monterey.ca.us/government/departments-a-h/administrative-office/office-of-emergency-services/ready-monterey-county/hazard-ready/landslide Monterey County Office of Emergency Services] </ref> This movement occurs when the down-slope force exceeds the strength of the soil or other material holding the slope together.<ref>[https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-a-landslide-and-what-causes-one?qt-news_science_products=0#qt-news_science_products USGS Natural Hazards]</ref> Typically, landslides  take time to initiate movement as the soil saturates and ultimately moves at a slow pace, but can cause significant damage to buildings and other infrastructure. <ref name= "conservation">[https://www.conservation.ca.gov/index/Pages/Fact-sheets/Post-Fire-Debris-Flow-Facts.aspx California Department of Conservation] </ref> Debris flows, a type of landslide, occur suddenly with shorter and intense rainfall creating a slurry that moves at a rapid pace and often can result in loss of life making them more dangerous.<ref name= "conservation">[https://www.conservation.ca.gov/index/Pages/Fact-sheets/Post-Fire-Debris-Flow-Facts.aspx California Department of Conservation] </ref>
 
Landslides are a characterized as the falling or movement of soil or rock down a slope and can manifest through  mudflows, mudslides, debris flows, rock falls, rockslides, debris avalanches, debris slides, and slump-earth flows.<ref>[https://www.co.monterey.ca.us/government/departments-a-h/administrative-office/office-of-emergency-services/ready-monterey-county/hazard-ready/landslide Monterey County Office of Emergency Services] </ref> This movement occurs when the down-slope force exceeds the strength of the soil or other material holding the slope together.<ref>[https://www.usgs.gov/faqs/what-a-landslide-and-what-causes-one?qt-news_science_products=0#qt-news_science_products USGS Natural Hazards]</ref> Typically, landslides  take time to initiate movement as the soil saturates and ultimately moves at a slow pace, but can cause significant damage to buildings and other infrastructure. <ref name= "conservation">[https://www.conservation.ca.gov/index/Pages/Fact-sheets/Post-Fire-Debris-Flow-Facts.aspx California Department of Conservation] </ref> Debris flows, a type of landslide, occur suddenly with shorter and intense rainfall creating a slurry that moves at a rapid pace and often can result in loss of life making them more dangerous.<ref name= "conservation">[https://www.conservation.ca.gov/index/Pages/Fact-sheets/Post-Fire-Debris-Flow-Facts.aspx California Department of Conservation] </ref>
  
In the United States, landslides are an extremely destructive hazard. Landslides in the country cause approximately $3.5 billion in damage, and kill between 25 and 50 people annually.<ref>[https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3072/fs-2004-3072.html USGS Landslide Types and Processes Fact Sheet]</ref> On a more local scale, landslides are one of the most costly geologic hazards in [[Monterey County]], costing millions of dollars yearly in infrastructure.<ref>[https://www.co.monterey.ca.us/home/showdocument?id=61924 Geoogic Resources and Constraints in Monterey County: A Technical Report]</ref> Surrounding Monterey, many other regions are prone to landslides. Along the coast, between [[Point Lobos State Natural Reserve]] and Capoforo Creek, 1,500 landslides were mapped in 2001 which indicated slope-failure is common.<ref>[http://ccows.csumb.edu/pubs/reports/CCoWS_CRWC_CarmAssPhysHyd_041101.pdf CCoWS Physical and Hydrologic Assessment of the Carmel River Watershed]</ref> Additionally, [[Los Padres National Forest]] contains at least 250 active landslide sites and over half of the forest is highly susceptible to slope failures.<ref>[https://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/lpnf/learning/nature-science/?cid=fsm9_034080 USDA Forest Service Geology-Landslides]</ref> In Hollister, the hillslopes are susceptible to slope failure as well. Creep, slump, and other earthflows are common in the area.<ref>[https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2188/b2188ch6.pdf USGS Field Trip of The Calaveras and San Andreas Faults In and Around Hollister]</ref> In California's Central Coast Region, landslides and flows are common due to rainfall and steep slopes. Other causes are present in the region which facilitate landslide occurences.
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In the United States, landslides are an extremely destructive hazard. Landslides in the country cause approximately $3.5 billion in damage, and kill between 25 and 50 people annually.<ref name= "fact">[https://pubs.usgs.gov/fs/2004/3072/fs-2004-3072.html USGS Landslide Types and Processes Fact Sheet]</ref> On a more local scale, landslides are one of the most costly geologic hazards in [[Monterey County]], costing millions of dollars yearly in infrastructure.<ref name= "grc">[https://www.co.monterey.ca.us/home/showdocument?id=61924 Geologic Resources and Constraints in Monterey County: A Technical Report]</ref> Surrounding Monterey, many other regions are prone to landslides. Along the coast, between [[Point Lobos State Natural Reserve]] and Capoforo Creek, 1,500 landslides were mapped in 2001 which indicated slope-failure is common.<ref>[http://ccows.csumb.edu/pubs/reports/CCoWS_CRWC_CarmAssPhysHyd_041101.pdf CCoWS Physical and Hydrologic Assessment of the Carmel River Watershed]</ref> Additionally, [[Los Padres National Forest]] contains at least 250 active landslide sites and over half of the forest is highly susceptible to slope failures.<ref>[https://www.fs.usda.gov/detail/lpnf/learning/nature-science/?cid=fsm9_034080 USDA Forest Service Geology-Landslides]</ref> In Hollister, the hillslopes are susceptible to slope failure as well. Creep, slump, and other earthflows are common in the area.<ref>[https://pubs.usgs.gov/bul/b2188/b2188ch6.pdf USGS Field Trip of The Calaveras and San Andreas Faults In and Around Hollister]</ref> In California's Central Coast Region, landslides and flows are common due to rainfall and steep slopes. Other causes are present in the region which facilitate landslide occurences.
  
 
= Causes =
 
= Causes =

Revision as of 17:38, 6 April 2020

An environmental summary created by the ENVS 560/L Watershed Systems class at CSUMB.

Summary

Landslides are a characterized as the falling or movement of soil or rock down a slope and can manifest through mudflows, mudslides, debris flows, rock falls, rockslides, debris avalanches, debris slides, and slump-earth flows.[1] This movement occurs when the down-slope force exceeds the strength of the soil or other material holding the slope together.[2] Typically, landslides take time to initiate movement as the soil saturates and ultimately moves at a slow pace, but can cause significant damage to buildings and other infrastructure. [3] Debris flows, a type of landslide, occur suddenly with shorter and intense rainfall creating a slurry that moves at a rapid pace and often can result in loss of life making them more dangerous.[3]

In the United States, landslides are an extremely destructive hazard. Landslides in the country cause approximately $3.5 billion in damage, and kill between 25 and 50 people annually.[4] On a more local scale, landslides are one of the most costly geologic hazards in Monterey County, costing millions of dollars yearly in infrastructure.[5] Surrounding Monterey, many other regions are prone to landslides. Along the coast, between Point Lobos State Natural Reserve and Capoforo Creek, 1,500 landslides were mapped in 2001 which indicated slope-failure is common.[6] Additionally, Los Padres National Forest contains at least 250 active landslide sites and over half of the forest is highly susceptible to slope failures.[7] In Hollister, the hillslopes are susceptible to slope failure as well. Creep, slump, and other earthflows are common in the area.[8] In California's Central Coast Region, landslides and flows are common due to rainfall and steep slopes. Other causes are present in the region which facilitate landslide occurences.

Causes

Precipitation

Wildfire and Vegetation

Earthquakes

Development

Prediction and Mitigation

Major Events

References

  1. Monterey County Office of Emergency Services
  2. USGS Natural Hazards
  3. 3.0 3.1 California Department of Conservation
  4. USGS Landslide Types and Processes Fact Sheet
  5. Geologic Resources and Constraints in Monterey County: A Technical Report
  6. CCoWS Physical and Hydrologic Assessment of the Carmel River Watershed
  7. USDA Forest Service Geology-Landslides
  8. USGS Field Trip of The Calaveras and San Andreas Faults In and Around Hollister

Disclaimer

This page may contain students' work completed as part of assigned coursework. It may not be accurate. It does not necessarily reflect the opinion or policy of CSUMB, its staff, or students...