Difference between revisions of "Los Padres Reservoir Capacity Issues"
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== Resources at Stake ==
== Resources at Stake ==
supply for the Monterey Peninsula is at stake. Increased sediment in the Los Padres reservoir decreases water storage capacity.
Steelhead trout habitat is at stake. Increased sediment accumulation may degrade water quality and pose as a threat to essential steelhead trout <ref>Newcombe CP, MacDonald DD. 1991. Effects of Suspended Sediments on Aquatic Ecosystems. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 11 (1):72-82</ref>. Each year a certain amount of water is released from the dam during the low flow season <ref>[http://www.mpwmd.dst.ca.us/gmletters/2009/20090508/20090508.pdf 2009 MPWMD Letter]</ref>. If there is water storage , there may be decrease in could .
== Proposed Solutions ==
== Proposed Solutions ==
Revision as of 09:15, 27 March 2014
The Los Padres Dam was built in 1949 on the Carmel River as an alternative water storage facility for the Monterey Peninsula. The Dam was built in response to an increase in sediment accumulation behind the downstream San Clemente Dam, which was built in 1921. Water stored in the Los Padres Reservoir is released during the low-flow season to allow water infiltration into the Carmel Valley Aquifer. California American Water Company (CalAm) pumps water from the Carmel Valley Aquifer to supply the Monterey Peninsula with water.
The Los Padres Reservoir had an initial storage capacity of 3,130 acre-feet. By 2008, the Los Padres Dam had lost almost half of its capacity to heavy sediment accumulation .
The Los Padres reservoir serves as the primary source of water storage for the Monterey Peninsula. A large increase in sediment accumulation would decrease the storage capacity of the reservoir, which could reduce Monterey Peninsula's water storage capacity.
Potential solutions for addressing the diminishing storage capacity of the reservoir include dredging, dam removal, changing the dam elevation, and construction of a new dam and reservoir system.
The Los Padres Reservoir is on the Carmel River in Central California. The reservoir is located 30 km southeast of the city of Carmel, and is bounded by the Santa Lucia Range to the south, Jacks Peak to the north and Sierra de Salinas to the east.
The Los Padres Reservoir was constructed with an initial capacity of 3,130 acre feet. The steep, unstable granitic slopes within the watershed are highly susceptible to erosion, leading to natural sediment accumulation within the reservoir. 
In August 1977, the Marble-Cone fire burned approximately 178,000 acres in the Santa Lucia Mountains, affecting virtually all of the Carmel watershed above Los Padres Reservoir. The US Forest Service estimated that less than 10% vegetative cover remained on over half the watershed. Unusually heavy rainfall in the months following the fire led to increased erosion within the watershed. In the three years following the fire the sediment deposition in the reservoir was about equal to the total deposition from the previous thirty years. By October 1980, the reservoir was left with a capacity just under 2000 acre feet. 
In 1984, sediment was removed from the reservoir, which increased the capacity to 2,179 acre feet. 
The 2008 Basin Complex fire burned 64%  of the watershed above the Los Padres reservoir. Unlike the Marble-Cone fire, there was not an increase in the sediment deposition in the reservoir. This is likely due to the low rainfall years that followed the fire.
In 2008 a stage-volume study completed by the CSUMB Watershed Institute measured the reservoir capacity at 1,785 acre feet. 
Resources at Stake
The water supply for the Monterey Peninsula is at stake. Increased sediment in the Los Padres reservoir decreases water storage capacity.
Steelhead trout habitat is at stake. Increased sediment accumulation may degrade water quality and pose as a threat to essential steelhead trout habitat . Each year a certain amount of water is released from the dam during the low flow season . If there is a decrease in the water storage within the reservoir, then there may be less water released into the Carmel River. This decrease in water could threaten critical habitat.
Over the years, several potential solutions have been discussed to address the diminishing capacity of the reservoir. In 1994-1995, CalAm proposed and submitted an EIR for the New Los Padres Dam Project, a 24,000 acre foot dam and reservoir to be located downstream from the existing Los Padres Dam. The EIR was certified by the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD), but a bond measure to fund the project was not passed by the electorate, and the project stalled. It was re-proposed in 1998 as the Carmel River Dam and Reservoir Project. 
A 2008 MPWMD memo discussed the possibility of improving storage capacity by increasing the elevation of the dam.  Dredging and dam removal have also been proposed. Discussion of the possible actions is ongoing, with the National Marine Fisheries Service and NOAA favoring dam removal while the state Department of Fish and Game and MPWMD support dredging the reservoir.  
Stakeholders who have an interest in the status of the Los Padres Reservoir include:
- California American Water Company (CalAm)
- Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD)
- Monterey Peninsula Residents
- Steelhead trout interests (e.g. NOAA-NMFS, CDFG, CRSA)
Laws, Policies, & Regulations
Policies and regulations that apply to the situation with the reservoir include:
- After the Basin Complex Fire, measures to address potential erosion and post-fire land management policies were outlined in the Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER)report .
- The 10 year comprehensive survey plan (2002)  addresses the need for wildland fire and restoration strategies to protect communities, forests and rangelands from the effects of wildland fires.
- CalAm and the Monterey Peninsula Water Management District (MPWMD) have proposed a new dam called Carmel River Dam and Reservoir Project (CRDRP)to replace Los Padres Dam  and have also proposed increasing the capacity of Los Padres Reservoir .* More that could be described, e.g.:
- SWRCB order against Cal-Am
- DWR & Dam Safety
- Dynamics of rainwater flow and sediment flow on recent burn areas i.e. hydrophobic soils.
Science and Technology
Projects and technologies that can be applied to capacity issues at the reservoir include:
- The USGS and USFS both have projects assessing burn events:
- The USGS gathers information to assess debris flow, water degradation, flood risk, and ecosystem damage. USGS Debris Flow Project
- Through the Department of the Interior, the US Forest service and USGS work cooperatively to form Burned Area Emergency Response(BAER) teams that rapidly assess burn areas using remote sensing and satellite imagery .
- Geologists, hydrologists and biologists continue to study erosion, siltation, fish habitat and hydrology in relation to water storage, water supplies and river ecosystems.
- Hydrologic Computer Modeling .
- Aerial photography and satellite imagery ( AVHRR ) can be used to monitor burn areas and landslides.
- LIDAR data can be merged with multibeam bathymetry data to create high resolution digital elevation maps to quantify change .
There are many potential research opportunities available related to the reservoir. Some of these are:
- Future work should involve quantifying current sediment load in the Los Padres Reservoir and assess the impacts of increased sediment accumulation. This should aid MPWMD in future water management decisions.
- Potential future CWSP MS thesis topic:
- Analysis of pre/post fire LIDAR and multibeam bathymetry data of Los Padres Reservoir to quantify sediment change.
- 2008 Stage-Volume Report for Los Padres Reservoir
- Assessment of Carmel River Watershed
- B. Hecht 1981
- Basin-Indians Fire SEAT Report
- Geomorphic Change in the Upper Carmel River
- Newcombe CP, MacDonald DD. 1991. Effects of Suspended Sediments on Aquatic Ecosystems. North American Journal of Fisheries Management 11 (1):72-82
- 2009 MPWMD Letter
- MPWD Draft EIR Executive Summary
- 2008 MPWMD Memo
- November 2012 Carmel Pine Cone Article
- A River Tamed- Monterey County Weekly May 2012
- Basin Complex Fire BAER Initial Report
- A Collaborative Approach for Reducing Wildland Fire Risks
- Palmieria A Shahb F Dinara A. 2001. Economics of reservoir sedimentation and sustainable management of dams. Journal of Environmental Management 61 (2):149-163
- Burned Area Rehabilitation
- Beeson PC Martens SN Breshears DD. 2001. Wildfire: Mapping Vulnerability to Landscape Disturbance. Hydrological Processes 15 (15):2917 - 2930
- Other Watershed Issues
- San Clemente Dam
- ENVS 560/L Watershed Systems
- CalAm Use of Carmel River Groundwater Basin
This page may contain student work completed as part of assigned coursework. It may not be accurate. It does not necessary reflect the opinion or policy of CSUMB, its staff, or students.