Difference between revisions of "Sand Mining in California's Central Coast Region"

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== Science ==
 
== Science ==
  
[[Coastal Retreat in California's Central Coast Region]], specifically Southern [[Monterey Bay]], has the fastest rate of erosion in California.<ref> Since the retreat is occuring in the [[Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary]], scientists are determined to find possible mitigation efforts, reasons for high rates, and, specific hot spots. NPS Professor Emeritus Dr. Ed Thornton has been leading the research for sand mining and [[Coastal Retreat in California's Central Coast Region|coastal retreat]] in the Southern Monterey Bay.
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[[Coastal Retreat in California's Central Coast Region]], specifically Southern [[Monterey Bay]], has the fastest rate of erosion in California.<ref name="HapkeEtAl.2006"/> Since the retreat is occuring in the [[Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary]], scientists are determined to find possible mitigation efforts, reasons for high rates, and, specific hot spots. NPS Professor Emeritus Dr. Ed Thornton has been leading the research for sand mining and [[Coastal Retreat in California's Central Coast Region|coastal retreat]] in the Southern Monterey Bay.
  
 
Recent research includes:
 
Recent research includes:

Revision as of 23:27, 7 April 2016

This page gives a short history of sand mining in California's Central Coast Region and highlights the CEMEX Lapis Plant. The page does not discuss gravel mining that occurs inland.

This page was created as part of the ENVS 560/L Watershed Systems class at CSUMB.

Summary

Southern Monterey Bay in the Central coast of California was the most intensively mined shoreline in the United States from 1906-1990. [1] The majority of sand mines were closed in 1990 due to assumptions that mining increased coastal erosion. One sand mine, the CEMEX plant, continues to mine for sand today.[1] The CEMEX Lapis Plant is currently under scrutinity for possibly violating a permit. The sand mining market in the United States is slightly over a billion dollars per year. [2]

Location

The only sand mining plant currently operating in California's Central Coast region, and the United States, is located in the City of Marina, Monterey County, California. The CEMEX Lapis Plant is located eight miles north of Monterey, California along Highway 1. [3] The City of Marina is located in the Lower Salinas River Watershed.

Resources At Stake

  • Sand
    • A valuable resource that is used to make glass, computer chips, in cement to build houses and roads, and more. [4]
  • Coastal Land
  • Dune Habitat
  • Existing Coastal Development (hotels, condos, etc.)
  • Snowy Plover Habitat
    • In December 2014, CalAm began work on a test slant intake well located at the CEMEX sand mining facility in North Marina[5]. Due to the presence of the Western Snowy Plover breeding grounds (threatened under the Endangered Species Act) near the test slant well, the location had to be returned to its original conditions by February 28, 2015[6].

Stakeholders

Local Government

Businesses

  • CEMEX is a Mexico-based, global building materials company that owns the CEMEX Lapis Plant in Marina, CA. [7]

Agencies

Non-Profits

Laws, policies, & regulations

  • Local Coastal Program Permit that CEMEX needs from the City of Marina
  • Coastal Development Permit
  • California Coastal Act

CEMEX does not currently have a Coastal Development Permit.[8] The plant is able to operate solely through the Local Coastal Program from the City of Marina.[8] Since CEMEX Lapis Plant has been in operation before the Calfornia Coastal Act, the plant has been "grandfathered-in".[8] Nonprofits such as The Surfrider Foundation and Save Our Shores are calling for the Coastal Commission to review the permit.[8]

Systems and Processes

The general argument is that mining threatens sand deposits on beaches. Sand is valuable part of the coastal land and dune ecosystem and is not renewable.

Sand mining can extend so deeply that it could affect ground water, springs, underground wells, and the water table. [9]

Science

Coastal Retreat in California's Central Coast Region, specifically Southern Monterey Bay, has the fastest rate of erosion in California.[10] Since the retreat is occuring in the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, scientists are determined to find possible mitigation efforts, reasons for high rates, and, specific hot spots. NPS Professor Emeritus Dr. Ed Thornton has been leading the research for sand mining and coastal retreat in the Southern Monterey Bay.

Recent research includes:

  • Sand Mining Impacts on Long-term Dune Erosion in Southern Monterey Bay [1]
  • Sediment distribution and transport along a rocky, embayed coast: Monterey Peninsula and Carmel Bay, California [11]
  • Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan For Southern Monterey Bay [12]
  • National Assessment of Shoreline Change Part 3: Historical Shoreline Change and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along Sandy Shorelines of the California Coast [10]

Tools

  • ArcGIS and the Digital Shoreline Analysis System (DSAS) toolbox can be used to monitor changes in beach width.

Future research

Data Gaps: See Chapter 11, Section 11.1 and 11.2, Page 152

CEMEX In The News

http://www.montereyherald.com/article/ZZ/20130826/NEWS/130828018

http://www.montereycountyweekly.com/news/cover/cemex-mine-reflects-human-hunger-for-sand/article_a7535ade-ba34-11e5-99c5-6fa7fd2f622a.html

http://www.santacruzsentinel.com/article/NE/20160316/NEWS/160319722

http://www.montereyherald.com/article/ZZ/20130826/NEWS/130828017

http://coastalcare.org/2014/09/monterey-bay-california-beach-sand-mining-from-a-national-marine-sanctuary-by-gary-griggs/

References

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Thornton et al. 2006. Sand Mining Impacts on Long-term Dune Erosion in Southern Monterey Bay. Marine Geology 229.1:45-58.
  2. Wikipedia page on sand mining
  3. CEMEX Lapis Plant
  4. Sand Wars Movie Website
  5. In brief: Test slant well intake for Monterey Peninsula project now underway
  6. MPWSP Temporary Slant Test Well, Project Description
  7. CEMEX Website About Us Page
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 Website Page Save Our Shores
  9. Environmental Impacts
  10. 10.0 10.1 Hapke CJ et al. 2006. USGS. National Assessment of Shoreline Change Part 3: Historical Shoreline Change and Associated Coastal Land Loss Along Sandy Shorelines of the California Coast
  11. Storlazzi, CD and Field, ME. 2000. Sediment distribution and transport along a rocky, embayed coast: Monterey Peninsula and Carmel Bay, California. Marine Geology 170.3: 289-316.]
  12. Coastal Regional Sediment Management Plan For Southern Monterey Bay

Links

Disclaimer

This page may contain student work completed as part of assigned coursework. It may not be accurate. It does not necessary reflect the opinion or policy of CSUMB, its staff, or students.